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  • 彭丽,阮宏鹏,王丽娟,谢洪波,屠志浩,沈兴华.高原环境对汽车兵注意力的影响[J].第二军医大学学报,2019,40(6):693-699    [点击复制]
  • PENG Li,RUAN Hong-peng,WANG Li-juan,XIE Hong-bo,TU Zhi-hao,SHEN Xing-hua.Effect of high altitude environment on attention of military drivers[J].Acad J Sec Mil Med Univ,2019,40(6):693-699   [点击复制]
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高原环境对汽车兵注意力的影响
彭丽1,阮宏鹏2,王丽娟3,谢洪波4,屠志浩5,沈兴华5*
0
(1. 解放军联勤保障部队941医院, 西宁 810007;
2. 32356部队卫生队, 格尔木 816099;
3. 92403部队卫生处, 福州 350007;
4. 解放军联勤保障部队904医院心身医学科, 无锡 214000;
5. 海军军医大学(第二军医大学)心理系航海心理学教研室, 上海 200433
*通信作者)
摘要:
目的 通过比较驻守不同海拔汽车兵注意力的差异,探讨高海拔组汽车兵注意力受损的主要影响因素,为客观评价高原汽车兵的注意力提供实证依据。方法 以高海拔(2 900 m)的196名汽车兵和中海拔(2 200 m)的190名汽车兵为研究对象,同时选取低海拔(100 m以下)192名汽车兵为对照组,采用华东师范大学科教仪器厂生产的注意集中测量仪(EP701C)、注意分配测量仪(EP708A)评估个体注意力。应用χ2检验、方差分析、LSD-t检验、非参数检验等统计学方法进行数据分析。结果 参与本次问卷调查和心理测量的汽车兵共600名,收回符合要求的测量表578份,有效回收率为96.33%,其中高海拔组196名、中海拔组190名、对照组192名。对3种声音选择反应测量中,高海拔组汽车兵对声音反应正确次数少于中海拔组(P<0.01)和对照组(P<0.01);高海拔组选择声反应时长于中海拔组(P<0.05)和对照组(P<0.01),且中海拔组选择声反应时也长于对照组(P<0.05)。注意力分配测量中,高海拔组、中海拔组注意声音正确次数均少于对照组(P<0.01,P<0.05);高海拔组注意声反应时长于中海拔组(P<0.05)和对照组(P<0.01),且中海拔组注意声反应时也长于对照组(P<0.05);高海拔组注意光反应时长于中海拔组(P<0.05)和对照组(P<0.01),且中海拔组注意光反应时也长于对照组(P<0.05)。注意集中能力测量中,高海拔组在轨时间长于对照组(P<0.01),脱靶次数在3组之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 高原环境对汽车兵选择反应时、注意分配能力均有不利影响,且表现为海拔越高受损越严重;但长期的高原环境汽车驾驶训练可促进高原汽车兵的注意集中能力。
关键词:  海拔  汽车兵  注意力  影响因素
DOI:10.16781/j.0258-879x.2019.06.0693
投稿时间:2019-01-12修订日期:2019-02-22
基金项目:全军“十二五”重大项目(AWS11J003),第二军医大学军事医学专项课题(2014JS07).
Effect of high altitude environment on attention of military drivers
PENG Li1,RUAN Hong-peng2,WANG Li-juan3,XIE Hong-bo4,TU Zhi-hao5,SHEN Xing-hua5*
(1. No. 941 Hospital of the Joint Logistics Support Force of PLA, Xining 810007, Qinghai, China;
2. Health Service Team, No. 32356 Troop of PLA, Golumd 816099, Qinghai, China;
3. Health Service Team, No. 92403 Troop of PLA, Fuzhou 350007, Fujian, China;
4. Department of Psychosomatic, No. 904 Hospital of the Joint Logistics Support Force of PLA, Wuxi 214000, Jiangsu, China;
5. Department of Naval Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Naval Medical University(Second Military Medical University), Shanghai 200433, China
*Corresponding author)
Abstract:
Objective To explore the main factors influencing the attention of the military drivers working at high altitude environment by comparing the attention status of the drivers at different altitudes, so as to provide evidence for objective evaluation of military drivers' attention at high altitude. Methods A total of 196 military drivers at high altitude (2 900 m) and 190 at moderate altitude (2 200 m) were included in study groups, and 192 at low altitude (below 100 m) were taken as controls. Attention concentration instrument (EP701C) and attention distribution instrument (EP708A) produced by Scientific & Teaching Instruments Factory of East China Normal University were used to evaluate the attention status of the drivers. The data were analyzed by chi-square test, variance analysis, LSD-t and nonparametric test. Results Finally 578 of the 600 surveyed military drivers finished the survey, with a recovery rate of 96.33%. The 578 drivers included 196 in the high altitude group, 190 in the moderate altitude group, and 192 in the control group. For reaction to the 3 kinds of sounds, the correct response time of the high altitude group was significantly less than those of the moderate altitude group (P<0.01) and control group (P<0.01), the reaction period of the high altitude group was significantly longer than those of the moderate altitude group (P<0.05) and control group (P<0.01), and that of the moderate altitude group was significantly longer than the control group (P<0.05). For attention distribution test, the accuracy times of sound attention in the high altitude group and the moderate altitude group were significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The high altitude group also had a significantly longer reaction time to the sound compared with the moderate altitude group (P<0.05) and control group (P<0.01), and that of the moderate altitude group was significantly longer than the control group (P<0.05); and the same was true also for the light response period in the three groups. For attention concentration ability test, the high altitude group had significantly longer orbit period than the control group (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference in the time of target missing among the three groups (P>0.05). Conclusion High altitude environment has an adverse effect on selecting response time and attention distribution ability of military drivers, and the effect increases with altitude. Long-term high-altitude environmental training can promote the attention concentration ability of military drivers.
Key words:  high altitude  military drivers  attention  influencing factors